4 Lesson 5 Youth First listen and then answer the followingquestion: How does the writer like to treat young people? Peopleare always talking about 'the problem of youth'. If there is one --which I take leave to doubt -- then it is older people who createit, not the young themselves. Let us get down to fundamentals andagree that the young are after all human beings -- people just liketheir elders. There is only one difference between an old man and ayoung one: the young man has a glorious future before him and theold one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is wherethe rub is. When I was a teenager, I felt that I was just young anduncertain -- that I was a new boy in a huge school, and I wouldhave been very pleased to be regarded as something so interestingas a problem. For one thing, being a problem gives you a certainidentity, and that is one of the things the young are busilyengaged in seeking. I find young people exciting. They have an airof freedom, and they not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions orlove of comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and theyhave no devotion to material things. All this seems to me to linkthem with life, and the origins of things. It's as if they were, insome sense, cosmic beings in violent and lovely contrast with ussuburban creatures. All that is in my mind when I meet a youngperson. He may be conceited, ill-mannered, presumptuous or fatuous,but I do not turn for protection to dreary cliches about respect ofelders -- as if mere age were a reason for respect. I accept thatwe are equals, and I will argue with him, as an equal, if I thinkhe is wrong. FIELDEN HUGHES from Out of the Air, The Listener Newwords and expression leave
skirmish n. . Lesson 10 Silicon valley First listen and thenanswer the following question. What does the computer industrythrive on apart from anarchy? Technology trends may push SiliconValley back to the future. Carver Mead, a pioneer in integratedcircuits and a professor of computer science at the CaliforniaInstitute of Technology, notes there are now work-stations thatenable engineers to design, test and produce chips right on theirdesks, much the way an editor creates a newsletter on a Macintosh.As the time and cost of making a chip drop to a few days and a fewhundred dollars, engineers may soon be free to let theirimaginations soar without being penalized by expensive failures.Mead predicts that inventors will be able to perfect powerfulcustomized chips over a weekend at the office -- spawning a newgeneration of garage start-ups and giving the U.S. a jump on itsforeign rivals in getting new products to market fast. 'We're gotmore garages with smart people,' Mead observes. 'We really thriveon anarchy.' And on Asians. Already, orientals and Asian Americansconstitute the majority of the engineering staffs at many Valleyfirms. And Chinese, Korean, Filipino and Indian engineers are
-- -- Unit 2 Lesson 12 Banks and their customers First listenand then answer the following question. Why is there no risk to thecustomer when a bank prints the customer's name on his cheques?When anyone opens a current account at a bank, he is lending thebank money, repayment of which he may demand at any time, either incash or by drawing a cheque in favour of another person. Primarily,the banker-customer relationship is that of debtor and creditor --who is which depending on whether the customer's account is incredit or is overdrawn. But, in addition to that basically simpleconcept, the bank and its customer owe a large number ofobligations to one another. Many of these obligations can give into problems and complications but a bank customer, unlike, say, abuyer of goods, cannot complain that the law is loaded against him.The bank must obey its customer's instructions, and not those ofanyone else. When, for example, a customer first opens an account,he instructs the bank to debit his account only in respect ofcheques draw by himself. He gives the bank specimens of hissignature, and there is a very firm rule that the bank has no rightor authority to pay out a customer's money on a cheques on whichits customer's signature has been forged. It makes no differencethat the forgery may have been a very skilful one: the bank mustrecognize its customer's signature. For this reason there is norisk to the customer in the practice, adopted by banks, of printingthe customer's name on his cheques. If this facilitates forgery, itis the bank which will lose, not the customer. GORDON BARRIE andAUBREY L. DLAMOND The Consumer Society and the Law New words andexpressions current adj. account
n. deviation n. -- -- 60 1 1 120112021203 1 1201 1 10 Lesson 15Secrecy in industry First listen and then answer the followingquestion. Why is secrecy particularly important in the chemicalindustries? Two factors weigh heavily against the effectiveness ofscientific research in industry. One is the general atmosphere ofsecrecy in which it is carried out, the other the lack of freedomof the individual research worker. In so far as any inquiry is asecret one, it naturally limits all those engaged in carrying itout from effective contact with their fellow scientists either inother countries or in universities, or even, often enough, in otherdepartments of the same firm. The degree of secrecy naturallyvaries considerably. Some of the bigger firms are engaged inresearches which are of such general and fundamental nature that itis a positive advantage to them not to keep them secret. Yet agreat many processes depending on such research are sought for withcomplete secrecy until the stage at which patents can be taken out.Even more processes are never patented at all but kept as secretprocesses. This applies particularly to chemical industries, wherechance discoveries play a much larger part than they do in physicaland mechanical
First listen and then answer the following question. What is theauthor's main argument about the modern city? In the organizationof industrial life the influence of the factory upon thephysiological and mental state of the workers has been completelyneglected. Modern industry is based on the conception of themaximum production at lowest cost, in order that an individual or agroup of individuals may earn as much money as possible. It hasexpanded without any idea of the true nature of the human beingswho run the machines, and without giving any consideration to theeffects produced on the individuals and on their descendants by theartificial mode of existence imposed by the factory. The greatcities have been built with no regard for us. The shape anddimensions of the skyscrapers depend entirely on the necessity ofobtaining the maximum income per square foot of ground, and ofoffering to the tenants offices and apartments that please them.This caused the construction of gigantic buildings where too largemasses of human beings are crowded together. Civilized men likesuch a way of living. While they enjoy the comfort and banal luxuryof their dwelling, they do not realize that they are deprived ofthe necessities of life. The modern city consists of monstrousedifices and of dark, narrow streets full of petrol fumes and toxicgases, torn by the noise of the taxicabs, lorries and buses, andthronged ceaselessly by great crowds. Obviously, it has not beenplanned for the good of its inhabitants. ALEXIS CARREL Man, theUnknown New words and expressions physiological adj. maximum adj.consideration n. descendant n. artificial n. impose v. dimension n.skyscraper n. tenant n. civilized adj.
Lesson 32 Galileo reborn First listen and then answer thefollowing question. What has modified out traditional view ofGalileo in recent times? In his own lifetime Galileo was the centreof violent controversy; but the scientific dust has long sincesettled, and today we can see even his famous clash with theInquisition in something like its proper perspective. But, incontrast, it is only in modern times that Galileo has become aproblem child for historians of science. The old view of Galileowas delightfully uncomplicated. He was, above all, a man whoexperimented: who despised the prejudices and book learning of theAristotelians, who put his questions to nature instead of to theancients, and who drew his conclusions fearlessly. He had been thefirst to turn a telescope to the sky, and he had seen thereevidence enough to overthrow Aristotle and Ptolemy together. He wasthe man who climbed the Leaning Tower of Pisa and dropped variousweights from the top, who rolled balls down inclined planes, andthen generalized the results of his many experiments into thefamous law of free fall. But a closer study of the evidence,supported by a deeper sense of the period, and particularly by anew consciousness of the philosophical undercurrents in thescientific revolution, has
The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. 2b1af7f3a8