Importantly, the Second Circuit has construed Penguin II as limited to the digital context. In Troma Entertainment Inc. v. Centennial Picture Inc., the Second Circuit, citing (among other cases) Fantis Foods, Penguin I, and Penguin II, found that the New York long-arm statute was not satisfied where a New York based movie producer asserted claims against non-residents for copyright infringement, common law fraud, and tortious interference with prospective economic advantage.
Broadly speaking, one can copyright any original work of authorship that can be "fixed in any tangible medium of expression," such as written on paper, or encoded on disk or tape, or recorded on film. This includes fiction and nonfiction writings, poetry, musical compositions (words and music alike), sound recordings, photographs, paintings and drawings, sculpture, architectural works, databases, audiovisual works such as movies, and multimedia works such as those on compact discs. Computer programs can be copyrighted, and almost always are. Unless a program is clearly denoted "freeware," you should assume it is subject to copyright protection.
Apart from fair use, the Copyright Act contains a special provision, Section 110(1), that allows teachers to perform or display a copyrighted work, either live or recorded, "in the course of face-to-face teaching activities . . . in a classroom or similar place devoted to instruction." Thus, you can use sound recordings, live performances, readings, films or videotapes, slides or any other performance or display of copyrighted works without restriction and without permission, so long as you are teaching students in a classroom or similar place such as a studio. The only exception is that you may not use a film or videotape that you have reason to believe is an illegally made copy.
On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution "that these united colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states," acting under the instruction of the Virginia Convention. The Lee Resolution contained three parts: a declaration of independence, a call to form foreign alliances, and "a plan for confederation."
28. Fresh drinking water is an issue of primary importance, since it is indispensable for human life and for supporting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Sources of fresh water are necessary for health care, agriculture and industry. Water supplies used to be relatively constant, but now in many places demand exceeds the sustainable supply, with dramatic consequences in the short and long term. Large cities dependent on significant supplies of water have experienced periods of shortage, and at critical moments these have not always been administered with sufficient oversight and impartiality. Water poverty especially affects Africa where large sectors of the population have no access to safe drinking water or experience droughts which impede agricultural production. Some countries have areas rich in water while others endure drastic scarcity.
35. In assessing the environmental impact of any project, concern is usually shown for its effects on soil, water and air, yet few careful studies are made of its impact on biodiversity, as if the loss of species or animals and plant groups were of little importance. Highways, new plantations, the fencing-off of certain areas, the damming of water sources, and similar developments, crowd out natural habitats and, at times, break them up in such a way that animal populations can no longer migrate or roam freely. As a result, some species face extinction. Alternatives exist which at least lessen the impact of these projects, like the creation of biological corridors, but few countries demonstrate such concern and foresight. Frequently, when certain species are exploited commercially, little attention is paid to studying their reproductive patterns in order to prevent their depletion and the consequent imbalance of the ecosystem.
53. These situations have caused sister earth, along with all the abandoned of our world, to cry out, pleading that we take another course. Never have we so hurt and mistreated our common home as we have in the last two hundred years. Yet we are called to be instruments of God our Father, so that our planet might be what he desired when he created it and correspond with his plan for peace, beauty and fullness. The problem is that we still lack the culture needed to confront this crisis. We lack leadership capable of striking out on new paths and meeting the needs of the present with concern for all and without prejudice towards coming generations. The establishment of a legal framework which can set clear boundaries and ensure the protection of ecosystems has become indispensable; otherwise, the new power structures based on the techno-economic paradigm may overwhelm not only our politics but also freedom and justice.
78. At the same time, Judaeo-Christian thought demythologized nature. While continuing to admire its grandeur and immensity, it no longer saw nature as divine. In doing so, it emphasizes all the more our human responsibility for nature. This rediscovery of nature can never be at the cost of the freedom and responsibility of human beings who, as part of the world, have the duty to cultivate their abilities in order to protect it and develop its potential. If we acknowledge the value and the fragility of nature and, at the same time, our God-given abilities, we can finally leave behind the modern myth of unlimited material progress. A fragile world, entrusted by God to human care, challenges us to devise intelligent ways of directing, developing and limiting our power.
113. There is also the fact that people no longer seem to believe in a happy future; they no longer have blind trust in a better tomorrow based on the present state of the world and our technical abilities. There is a growing awareness that scientific and technological progress cannot be equated with the progress of humanity and history, a growing sense that the way to a better future lies elsewhere. This is not to reject the possibilities which technology continues to offer us. But humanity has changed profoundly, and the accumulation of constant novelties exalts a superficiality which pulls us in one direction. It becomes difficult to pause and recover depth in life. If architecture reflects the spirit of an age, our megastructures and drab apartment blocks express the spirit of globalized technology, where a constant flood of new products coexists with a tedious monotony. Let us refuse to resign ourselves to this, and continue to wonder about the purpose and meaning of everything. Otherwise we would simply legitimate the present situation and need new forms of escapism to help us endure the emptiness.
The Red Cross Exploring Humanitarian Law (EHL) helps middle and high school teachers introduce global humanitarian principles in their classrooms. It offers a customizable set of resources that help students understand the rules governing war and their impact on human life and dignity. Furthermore, it challenges students to investigate real situations and discuss some of the most important humanitarian questions facing us today. Learn more, and download the free toolkit, at www.redcross.org/ehl.
The American Red Cross helps to reconnect thousands of refugees, immigrants and other individuals with their families each year by partnering with our sister Red Cross and Red Crescent societies around the world to locate missing loved ones separated by war, conflict or disaster. Visit your local American Red Cross chapter or call our free national helpline at 844-782-9441 for more information about our international family tracing services.
When you start using Invoice Central, you will no longer get a hard copy invoice in the mail. You can, however, print as many copies as you like from the website, or download a copy to your computer.
Invoice Central includes an Export function that enables you to download invoice and payment information in standard formats for input in your A/P application. Simply choose Export from the main navigation bar. Optionally, you can work with us to integrate invoice data directly into your back office system. This takes some work on our part and yours, but it enables you to minimize human interaction and free your staff to work on exceptions, analysis and other tasks. If you are interested in this type of integration, email us at InvoiceCentral@redcross.org for further information.
During disasters, if you see or hear about any instances of people misusing the Red Cross name or logo to collect funds on behalf of disaster victims, or any other types of disaster-related fraud, please call the National Center for Disaster Fraud (a program under the U.S. Department of Justice), toll-free, at (866) 720-5721, or email the NCDF at email@example.com. All calls and emails will be treated as confidential.
To learn more about Michelle's film and how you can host a screening for your school, organization or community, please visit crackedupmovie.com. We'll include a link in the show notes along with some resources where you can learn more about childhood trauma in general. Road to Resilience is a production of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. It's made by me, Katie Ullman and Nicci Hudson. Our executive producers are Dorie Klissas and Lucia Lee. If you liked what you heard today, please subscribe and rate us on iTunes and recommend us to a friend. We really appreciate it. I'm Jon Earle. We'll see you next month with more stories from the Road to Resilience. 2b1af7f3a8